Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Handbook PDF

Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Handbook pdf

Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Handbook – The book discusses instrumentation and control in modern fossil fuel power plants, with an emphasis on selecting the most appropriate systems subject to constraints engineers have for their projects. It provides all the plant process and design details, including specification sheets and standards currently followed in the plant.

Among the unique features of the book are the inclusion of control loop strategies and BMS/FSSS step by step logic, coverage of analytical instruments and technologies for pollution and energy savings, and coverage of the trends toward filed bus systems and integration of subsystems into one network with the help of embedded controllers and OPC interfaces. The book includes comprehensive listings of operating values and ranges of parameters for temperature, pressure, flow, level, etc of a typical 250/500 MW thermal power plant. Appropriate for project engineers as well as instrumentation/control engineers, the book also includes tables, charts, and figures from real-life projects around the world.

  • Covers systems in use in a wide range of power plants:  conventional thermal power plants, combined/cogen plants, supercritical plants, and once through boilers
  • Presents practical design aspects and current trends in instrumentation
  • Discusses why and how to change control strategies when systems are updated/changed
  • Provides instrumentation selection techniques based on operating parameters.  Spec sheets are included for each type of instrument.
  • Consistent with current professional practice in North America, Europe, and India

Preface – Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Handbook

Technical books that have theoretical and practical approaches are available worldwide about several subsystems of thermal power plant instrumentation and controls. This book endeavors to act as a way to balance two extreme lines of thinking, giving a comprehensive approach to plants’ measurements and controls. What is here is primarily meant for professionals working with thermal power plant instrumentation and control systems. Budding (fresh) engineers who start their careers in thermal power plant instrumentation and control engineering, and those practicing professionals of other disciplines, will greatly benefit from the comprehensiveness and practical approaches in this book. It will be a very good reference for engineering students who are pursuing higher-level studies in various branches of engineering.

Highly developed and advanced mathematical deductions are passed up as much as possible; instead physical explanations have been given so that readers get a proper feel of the system so that the book could be kept within a very limited dimension. The text part incorporates an abridged description on the subject being dealt with along with relevant figures and tables to visually show a clear picture of it. In all cases, detailed specifications of the instruments, subsystems, and systems have been included in addition to practical control loops and logistics to enable the book to be “all-time companion” for practicing engineers. Discussions about both subcritical and super-ultra supercritical power plants, as well as IGCCs, have been included in order to take a look at future trends in power plants. Content keeps pace with development work in the field of electronics and control and communication engineering, with special attention to inclusion of the means and methods of system integration with fieldbus systems, OPC servers, and so on. Application of artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic in power plant instrumentation have been covered in detail. In an attempt to incoporate this extensive subject area into the form of a book, the authors have carried out a great deal of research over years so as to include the knowledge gained during their decades-long global experience in thermal power plant instrumentation engineering. We wish to convey our sincere thanks to the companies who entrusted us to work in this specialized area of engineering. The authors feel rewarded only when their research work is able to benefit future engineers who can serve the global population by providing scarce pollution-free energy for human development.

INTRODUCTION – Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Handbook

The authors of this book have been associated with the Instrumentation and Control System of Modern Power Plants for more than two decades while working with a leading consulting firm. They are still in touch with modern technology by associating with the engineering and consultancy activities of ongoing projects. We wanted to document their extended experience in the form of a reference book so that professional engineers, working engineers in power plants, and students could benefit from the knowledge gathered during their tenure.

There are so many valuable and good books available on a variety of subjects related to power plants about boilers, turbines, and generators and their subsystems, but it is very difficult to get a single book or single volume of a book to cater to the equipment, accessories, or items along with the instrumentation and control systems associated with them. In this book, there is a very brief description of the system and equipment along with diagrams for a cursory idea about the entire plant. Up-to-date piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) are included to better understand the tapping locations of measuring and control parameters of the plant. Various types of instruments, along with sensors, transmitters, gauges, switches, signal conditioner/converter, etc., have been discussed in depth in dedicated chapters, whereas special types of instruments are covered in separate chapters. Instrument data sheets or specification sheets are included so that beginners may receive adequate support for preparing the documents required for their daily work. The control system chapters VIII, IX and X incorporate the latest control philosophy that has been adopted in several power stations. This book mainly emphasizes subcritical boilers, but a separate appendix is provided on supercritical boilers because of their economic and low-pollution aspects, which create a bigger demand and need than do conventional subcritical boilers. It is hoped that this book may help students and/or those who perform power plant-oriented jobs.

FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT BASIC PROCESS Power plant concepts are based on the Laws of Thermodynamics, which depict the relationship among heat, work, and various properties of the systems. All types of energy transformations related to various systems (e.g., mechanical, electrical, chemical etc.) may fall under the study of thermodynamics and are basically founded on empirical formulae and system and/or process behavior. A thermodynamic system is a region in space on control volume or mass under study toward energy transformation within a system and transfer of energy across the boundaries of the system. 2.0 Ideas within and Outside the System 1. Surrounding: Space and matter outside the thermodynamic system. 2. Universe: Thermodynamic system and surroundings put together. 3. Thermodynamic systems: a. Closed: Only energy may cross the boundaries with the mass remaining within the boundary. b. Open: Transfer of mass takes place across the boundary. c. Isolated: The system is isolated from its surrounding and no transfer of mass or energy takes place across the boundary. 4. State: It is the condition detailed in such a way that one state may be differentiated from all other states. 5. Property: Any observable characteristics measurable in terms of numbers and units of measurement, including physical qualities such as pressure, temperature, flow, level, location, speed, etc. The property of any system depends only on the state of the system and not on the process by which the state has been achieved. a. Intensive: Does not depend on the mass of the system (e.g., pressure, temperature, specific volume, and density). b. Extensive: Depends on the mass of the system (i.e., volume).

Contents – Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Handbook

  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter I. Introduction
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Fundamental Knowledge about Basic Process
    • 3. Process Parameters and Ranges
  • Chapter II. Main Equipment
    • 1. Overview of Types, Functions, and Description of Main Equipment
    • 2. Steam Generator: Boiler
    • 3. Turbine Types
    • 4. Generator
    • 5. Boiler Feed Pump and Condensate Extraction Pump with Associated Measurements
    • 6. Deaerators and Heaters
    • 7. Function and Description of CW and ACW Systems
    • 8. Demineralizing Plant’s Function and Description
    • 9. Basic System Functions and Description of Coal Handling
    • 10. Basic System Functions and Description of ASH Handling
    • 10.1. Properties of Ash
  • Chapter III. Plant P&ID Discussions
    • 1. Introduction (P&ID)
    • 2. Main Steam (P&ID)
    • 3. Reheat Steam (P&IDs): Cold and Hot Reheat
    • 4. Extraction Steam (P&IDs): Bleed Steam
    • 5. Auxiliary Steam (P&IDs)
    • 6. Feed Water System (P&ID)
    • 7. Condensate System (P&IDs)
    • 8. Heater Drain and Vent (P&IDs)
    • 9. Air and Flue Gas System (P&IDs)
    • 10. Cogeneration P&ID
    • 11. Miscellaneous Other Systems (P&ID)
  • Chapter IV. General Instruments
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Pressure Measurement: Various Measuring Points and Range Selection
    • 3. Temperature Measurement: Various Measuring Points and Range Selection
    • 4. Flow Measurement, Various Measuring Points, Various Types, and Range Selection
    • 5. Level Measurement
  • Chapter V. Special Instrument
    • 1. Special Instruments
    • 2. Vibration and Turbovisory Instruments
    • 3. Gas Analyzers
    • 4. Steam and Water Analysis System
    • 5. Sample Conditioning System
    • 6. Blow Down and Dosing Control
    • 7. Analyzers for Air Pollution Monitoring and Control (NOX Control)
  • Chapter VI. Final Control Element
    • 1. Valves and Actuators
    • 2. Control Valve Types
    • 3. Dampers and Miscellaneous other FCEs
    • 4. Actuators
    • 5. Accessories
  • Chapter VII. Intelligent Control System
    • 1. Basics (Discussion on Intelligent Network System)
    • 2. PLC System: Introduction
    • 3. Annunciation and Sequence of Event: Preamble
    • 4. Integrated DCS–DDC MIS: Preamble
    • 5. MMI and Recording: Introduction
    • 6. MIS: Introduction
  • Chapter VIII. Boiler Control System
    • 1. Basic Control Requirements
    • 2. Steam Pressure Control with Load Index
    • 3. Air Flow Control
    • 4. Fuel Flow Control
    • 5. Coal Mill Control—Mill Air Flow for TT Boiler
    • 6. Furnace Draft Control
    • 7. Drum-Level and Feedwater Controls
    • 8. Superheater Temperature Control
    • 9. Reheat Temperature Control
    • 10. Miscellaneous Boiler Controls, including Overfire Air Dampers
    • 11. HP–LP Bypass System
    • 12.0. Boiler OLCS: Introduction to Interlock and Protection of Boiler BMS, SADC, and SB Control
  • Chapter IX. Turbo Generator Control System
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Electro Hydraulic Governor Control System
    • 3. Turbine Protection System
    • 4. ATRS
    • 5. ATT System
    • 6. Thermal Stress Evaluator
    • 7. LPBP System
    • 8. Turbine Controls: Seal Steam Pressure Control System
    • 9. Hydrogen Seal Oil System and Differential Pressure Control
    • 10. Generator Control System
    • 11. Condenser Level and Deaerator Level Control System
    • 12. Various TG Options and Miscellenious TG Controls
  • Chapter X. Coordinated Control System
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Coordinate Control Mode
    • 3. Turbine Follow Mode
    • 4. Boiler Follow Mode
    • 5. Run Back System
    • 6. Discussions and Explanations
  • Chapter XI. Balance of Plant Control System
    • 1. Balance of Plant: Introduction
    • 2. BFP Recirculation Control
    • 3. CEP Recirculation Control
    • 4. GSC Minimum Flow Control
    • 5. Deaerator (Pressure) Control
    • 6. LP Heater Level Control
    • 7. HP Heater Level Control
    • 8. Ejector Control and TAS
  • Chapter XII. Installation Practices
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Pipe Valve Fitting Material Specification and Rating
    • 3. Mechanical Installation of Instruments
    • 4. Elecrical Installation of Instruments
  • Appendix I. Process and Mechanical Standard Table
  • Appendix II. Electrical Data and Tables
  • Appendix III. ISA Standard, Materials, Human Engineering, and Control Room
  • Appendix IV. Network Control and Communication
  • Appendix V. Super/Ultra Super Critical Power Plants
  • Appendix VI. Integrated Gasifier and Combined Cycle Plant (Pollution Control)
  • Appendix VII. A Few Operational Features of the Unit
  • Index

Details

No. of pages: 942Language: EnglishCopyright: © Academic Press 2015Published: 31st October 2014Imprint: Academic PressPaperback ISBN: 9780128009406eBook ISBN: 9780128011737

Author – Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Handbook

Swapan Basu is a member of IEEE and IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement. He has several decades of experience in practicing instrumentation & control systems for subcritical, super critical thermal power plants including combined cycle projects. Since 1979, he has been leading teams of engineers in India, Jordan, Singapore, South Korea, Syria, and USA. He has a number of national and international technical papers to his credit. With Elsevier BV had already authored books entitled “Power Plant instrumentation and control Handbook”, “Plant Hazard Analysis and Safety Instrumentation Systems” and “Plant Flow Metering and control handbook”. Author also maintains technical Blog: http://swapanbasu.com. Author’s update is available at: https://www.amazon.com/author/swapanbasu . He is founder member of Systems & Controls – C&I consultants in Kolkata India.

Ajay Kumar Debnath is Chief Executive, Systems and Controls, Control and Instrumentation Engineering and Consulting Kolkata, India. He has practiced both electrical and C&I system in power plants and textile and fertilizer plants. He has over 43 years of experience and has worked in India, France, and the United States in fossil fuel power plants from 30 MW up to 660 MW Supercritical Power Plants and co-generation as well as in combined cycle plants with gas, bagasse, and tar as fuel.

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