* Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 6e* helps students learn electrical-engineering fundamentals with minimal frustration. Its goals are to present basic concepts in a general setting, to show students how the principles of electrical engineering apply to specific problems in their own fields, and to enhance the overall learning process.

Circuit analysis, digital systems, electronics, and electromechanics are covered. A wide variety of pedagogical features stimulate student interest and engender awareness of the material’s relevance to their chosen profession.

**NEW:** This edition is now available with MasteringEngineering, an innovative online program created to emulate the instructor’s office–hour environment, guiding students through engineering concepts from *Electrical* *Engineering *with self-paced individualized coaching.

**Note:** If you are purchasing the standalone text or electronic version, MasteringEngineering does not come automatically packaged with the text. To purchase MasteringEngineering, please visit: masteringengineering.com or you can purchase a package of the physical text + MasteringEngineering by searching the Pearson Higher Education website. Mastering is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor.

**Teaching and Learning Experience**

To provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will:

*Individualized Coaching:*Now available with MasteringEngineering, an online program that emulates the instructor’s office–hour environment using self-paced individualized coaching.*Engage Students:*Basic concepts are presented in a general setting to show students how the principles of electrical engineering apply to specific problems in their own fields, and to enhance the overall learning process.*Support Instructors and Students:*A variety of pedagogical features stimulate student interest and engender awareness of the material’s relevance to their chosen profession.

Contents

- 1 Features – Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications
- 2 New to This Edition
- 3 Table of Contents – Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications
- 4 Preface
- 5 PREREQUISITES – Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications
- 6 PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES
- 7 About the Author(s) – Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

## Features – Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

**INDIVIDUALIZED COACHING**

**MasteringEngineering** is an innovative online program created to emulate the instructor’s office—hour environment, guiding students through engineering concepts from *Electrical Engineering *with self-paced individualized coaching.

- Self-paced tutorials provide students with
**answer-specific feedback**and**personal instruction.** - All end-of-section and tutorial homework problems have been tagged to
**ABET Learning Outcomes**A, E, and K. **Video Solutions**–complete, step-by-step solution walkthroughs of representative homework problems from the textbook–are assignable to offer students more visual learning opportunities. Video Solutions provide additional assistance for students with homework or preparing for an exam, offering hours of valuable review when students need help the most.**Note:**If you are purchasing the standalone text or electronic version, MasteringEngineering does not come automatically packaged with the text. To purchase MasteringEngineering, please visit: masteringengineering.com or you can purchase a package of the physical text + MasteringEngineering by searching the Pearson Higher Education website. Mastering is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor.

**ENGAGE STUDENTS**

The book includes various pedagogical features designed with the goal of stimulating student interest, eliminating frustration, and engendering an awareness of the relevance of the material to their chosen profession. These features are:

- Statements of learning objectives open each chapter.
- Comments in the margins emphasize and summarize important points or indicate common pitfalls that students need to avoid.
- Short boxed articles demonstrate how electrical engineering principles are applied in other fields of engineering.
- Step-by-step problem solving procedures.
- Key equations are highlighted in the book to draw attention to important results.

**SUPPORT INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS**

- Complete solutions to the in-chapter exercises and Practice Tests, included as PDF files on-line, build student confidence and indicate where additional study is needed.
- Summaries of important points at the end of each chapter provide references for students.
- A Practice Test at the end of each chapter gives students a chance to test their knowledge. Answers appear in Appendix E and complete solutions are included in the Student Solutions files.
- The Companion Website contains an abundance of additional resources for students. An access code to the site, located at www.pearsonhighered.com/hambley is included with the purchase of every new book or can be purchased separately at the website. These resources include:
- Pearson eText, which is a complete online version of the book that includes highlighting, note-taking, and search capabilities.
- Video Solutions that provide complete, step-by-step solution walkthroughs of representative homework problems from each chapter.
- A Student Solutions Manual with PDF files for each chapter that include full solutions for the in-chapter exercises, answers for the end-of-chapter problems that are marked with asterisks, and full solutions for the Practice Tests.
- A MATLAB folder that contains the m-files discussed in the book.
- A Multisim folder that contains tutorials on the basic features of Multisim and circuit simulations for a wide variety of circuits from the book.

### New to This Edition

- We have continued the popular Practice Tests that students can use in preparing for course exams at the end of each chapter. Answers for the Practice Tests appear in Appendix D and complete solutions are included in the on-line Student Solutions Manual files.
- We have updated the coverage of MATLAB and the Symbolic Toolbox for network analysis in Chapters 2 through 6.
- Approximately 200 problems are new to this edition, replacing some of the problems from the previous edition, and many other problems have been modified.
- In Chapter 2, we have added an explanation of how the Wheatstone bridge is used in strain measurements.
- Sections 3.8 and 4.6 have been updated, deleting the coverage of piecewise linear functions which are problematic with recent versions of the Symbolic Toolbox.
- Practical Application 5.1 on the LORAN system has been deleted.
- Chapter 8 has been extensively updated and now uses the Freescale Semiconductor HCS12/9S12 family as an example of microcontrollers.
- Section 9.4 has been updated to the most recent version of LabVIEW
- Relatively minor corrections and improvements appear throughout the book.
**MasteringEngineering**is an innovative online program created to emulate the instructor’s office—hour environment, guiding students through engineering concepts from*Electrical Engineering*with self-paced individualized coaching.- Self-paced tutorials provide students with
**answer-specific feedback**and**personal instruction.** - All end-of-section and tutorial homework problems have been tagged to
**ABET Learning Outcomes**A, E, and K. **Video Solutions**–complete, step-by-step solution walkthroughs of representative homework problems from the textbook–are assignable to offer students more visual learning opportunities. Video Solutions provide additional assistance for students with homework or preparing for an exam, offering hours of valuable review when students need help the most.**Note:**If you are purchasing the standalone text or electronic version, MasteringEngineering does not come automatically packaged with the text. To purchase MasteringEngineering, please visit: masteringengineering.com or you can purchase a package of the physical text + MasteringEngineering by searching the Pearson Higher Education website. Mastering is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor.

- Self-paced tutorials provide students with

### Table of Contents – Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

Practical Applications of Electrical Engineering Principles vi

Preface xi

**1 Introduction 1**

1.1 Overview of Electrical Engineering 2

1.2 Circuits, Currents, and Voltages 6

1.3 Power and Energy 13

1.4 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 16

1.5 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 19

1.6 Introduction to Circuit Elements 22

1.7 Introduction to Circuits 30

Summary 34

Problems 35

**2 Resistive Circuits 46**

2.1 Resistances in Series and Parallel 47

2.2 Network Analysis by Using Series and Parallel Equivalents 51

2.3 Voltage-Divider and Current-Divider Circuits 55

2.4 Node-Voltage Analysis 60 Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

2.5 Mesh-Current Analysis 79

2.6 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 88

2.7 Superposition Principle 101

2.8 Wheatstone Bridge 104

Summary 107

Problems 109

**3 Inductance and Capacitance 124**

3.1 Capacitance 125

3.2 Capacitances in Series and Parallel 132

3.3 Physical Characteristics of Capacitors 134

3.4 Inductance 138

3.5 Inductances in Series and Parallel 143

3.6 Practical Inductors 144

3.7 Mutual Inductance 147

3.8 Symbolic Integration and Differentiation Using MATLAB 148

Summary 152

Problems 153

**4 Transients 162**

4.1 First-Order *RC *Circuits 163

4.2 DC Steady State 167

4.3 *RL *Circuits 169

4.4 *RC *and *RL *Circuits with General Sources 173

4.5 Second-Order Circuits 179

4.6 Transient Analysis Using the MATLAB Symbolic Toolbox 192

Summary 197

Problems 198

**5 Steady-State Sinusoidal Analysis 209**

5.1 Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages 210

5.2 Phasors 216

5.3 Complex Impedances 222

5.4 Circuit Analysis with Phasors and Complex Impedances 225

5.5 Power inAC Circuits 231

5.6 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 244

5.7 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 249

5.8 AC Analysis Using MATLAB 261

Summary 265

Problems 266

**6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance 278**

6.1 Fourier Analysis, Filters, and Transfer Functions 279

6.2 First-Order Lowpass Filters 287

6.3 Decibels, the Cascade Connection, and Logarithmic Frequency Scales 292

6.4 Bode Plots 296

6.5 First-Order Highpass Filters 299

6.6 Series Resonance 303

6.7 Parallel Resonance 308

6.8 Ideal and Second-Order Filters 311

6.9 Transfer Functions and Bode Plots with MATLAB 317

6.10 Digital Signal Processing 322

Summary 331

Problems 333

7 **Logic Circuits 347**

7.1 Basic Logic Circuit Concepts 348

7.2 Representation of Numerical Data in Binary Form 351

7.3 Combinatorial Logic Circuits 359

7.4 Synthesis of Logic Circuits 366

7.5 Minimization of Logic Circuits 373

7.6 Sequential Logic Circuits 377

Summary 388 Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

Problems 389

**8 Computers and Microcontrollers 400**

8.1 Computer Organization 401

8.2 Memory Types 404

8.3 Digital Process Control 406

8.4 ProgrammingModelfor the HCS12/9S12 Family 409

8.5 The Instruction Set and Addressing Modes for the CPU12 413

8.6 Assembly-Language Programming 422

Summary 427

Problems 428

**9 Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems 433**

9.1 Measurement Concepts and Sensors 434

9.2 Signal Conditioning 439

9.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 446

9.4 LabVIEW 449

Summary 462

Problems 463

**10 Diodes 467**

10.1 Basic Diode Concepts 468

10.2 Load-Line Analysis of Diode Circuits 471

10.3 Zener-Diode Voltage-Regulator Circuits 474

10.4 Ideal-Diode Model 478

10.5 Piecewise-Linear Diode Models 480

10.6 Rectifier Circuits 483

10.7 Wave-Shaping Circuits 488

10.8 Linear Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 493

Summary 499 Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

Problems 499

**11 Amplifiers: Specifications and External Characteristics 511**

11.1 Basic Amplifier Concepts 512

11.2 Cascaded Amplifiers 517

11.3 Power Supplies and Efficiency 520

11.4 Additional Amplifier Models 523

11.5 Importance of Amplifier Impedances in Various Applications 526

11.6 Ideal Amplifiers 529

11.7 Frequency Response 530

11.8 LinearWaveform Distortion 535

11.9 Pulse Response 539

11.10 Transfer Characteristic and Nonlinear Distortion 542

11.11 Differential Amplifiers 544

11.12 Offset Voltage, Bias Current, and Offset Current 548

Summary 553

Problems 554

**12 Field-Effect Transistors 566**

12.1 NMOS and PMOS Transistors 567

12.2 Load-Line Analysis of a Simple NMOS Amplifier 574

12.3 Bias Circuits 577

12.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 580

12.5 Common-Source Amplifiers 585

12.6 Source Followers 588

12.7 CMOS Logic Gates 593

Summary 598 Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

Problems 599

**13 Bipolar Junction Transistors 607**

13.1 Current and Voltage Relationships 608

13.2 Common-Emitter Characteristics 611

13.3 Load-Line Analysis of a Common-Emitter Amplifier 612

13.4 *pnp *Bipolar Junction Transistors 618

13.5 Large-Signal DC Circuit Models 620

13.6 Large-Signal DC Analysis of BJT Circuits 623

13.7 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 630

13.8 Common-Emitter Amplifiers 633

13.9 Emitter Followers 638

Summary 644

Problems 645

**14 Operational Amplifiers 655**

14.1 Ideal Operational Amplifiers 656

14.2 Inverting Amplifiers 657

14.3 Noninverting Amplifiers 664

14.4 Design of Simple Amplifiers 667

14.5 Op-Amp Imperfections in the Linear Range of Operation 672

14.6 Nonlinear Limitations 676

14.7 DC Imperfections 681 Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

14.8 Differential and Instrumentation Amplifiers 685

14.9 Integrators and Differentiators 687

14.10 Active Filters 690

Summary 694

Problems 695

**15 Magnetic Circuits and Transformers 708**

15.1 Magnetic Fields 709

15.2 Magnetic Circuits 718

15.3 Inductance and Mutual Inductance 723

15.4 Magnetic Materials 727

15.5 Ideal Transformers 731

15.6 Real Transformers 738

Summary 743

Problems 743

**16 DC Machines 754**

16.1 Overview of Motors 755

16.2 Principles of DC Machines 764

16.3 Rotating DC Machines 769

16.4 Shunt-Connected and Separately Excited DC Motors 775

16.5 Series-Connected DC Motors 780

16.6 Speed Control of DC Motors 784

16.7 DC Generators 788

Summary 793

Problems 794 Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

**17 AC Machines 803**

17.1 Three-Phase Induction Motors 804

17.2 Equivalent-Circuit and Performance Calculations for Induction Motors 812

17.3 Synchronous Machines 821

17.4 Single-Phase Motors 833

17.5 Stepper Motors and Brushless

DC Motors 836

Summary 838

Problems 839

**APPENDICES**

**A**

Complex Numbers 845

Summary 852

Problems 852

**B**

Nominal Values and the Color Code for Resistors 854

**C**

The Fundamentals of Engineering Examination 856

**D**

Answers for the Practice Tests 860

**E**

On-Line Student Resources 868

## Preface

As in the previous editions, my guiding philosophy in writing this book has three elements. The first element is my belief that in the long run students are best served by learning basic concepts in a general setting. Second, I believe that students need to be motivated by seeing how the principles apply to specific and interesting problems in their own fields. The third element of my philosophy is to take every opportunity to make learning free of frustration for the student. This book covers circuit analysis, digital systems, electronics, and electromechanics at a level appropriate for either electrical-engineering students in an introductory course or nonmajors in a survey course. The only essential prerequisites are basic physics and single-variable calculus. Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

Teaching a course using this book offers opportunities to develop theoretical and experimental skills and experiences in the following areas: Basic circuit analysis and measurement First- and second-order transients Steady-state ac circuits Resonance and frequency response Digital logic circuits Microcontrollers Computer-based instrumentation, including LabVIEW Diode circuits Electronic amplifiers Field-effect and bipolar junction transistors Operational amplifiers Transformers Ac and dc machines Computer-aided circuit analysis using MATLAB While the emphasis of this book is on basic concepts, a key feature is the inclusion of short articles scattered throughout showing how electrical-engineering concepts are applied in other fields. The subjects of these articles include anti-knock signal processing for internal combustion engines, a cardiac pacemaker, active noise control, and the use of RFID tags in fisheries research, among others. I welcome comments from users of this book. Information on how the book could be improved is especially valuable and will be taken to heart in future revisions. My e-mail address is arhamble@mtu.edu

### PREREQUISITES – Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

The essential prerequisites for a course from this book are basic physics and singlevariable calculus. A prior differential equations course would be helpful but is not essential. Differential equations are encountered in Chapter 4 on transient analysis, but the skills needed are developed from basic calculus.

### PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES

The book includes various pedagogical features designed with the goal of stimulating student interest, eliminating frustration, and engendering an awareness of the relevance of the material to their chosen profession. These features are: Statements of learning objectives open each chapter. Comments in the margins emphasize and summarize important points or indicate common pitfalls that students need to avoid. Short boxed articles demonstrate how electrical-engineering principles are applied in other fields of engineering. For example, see the articles on active noise cancellation (page 287) and electronic pacemakers (starting on page 385). Step-by-step problem solving procedures. For example, see the step-by-step summary of node-voltage analysis (on pages 76–77) or the summary of Thévenin equivalents (on page 95). A Practice Test at the end of each chapter gives students a chance to test their knowledge. Answers appear in Appendix D. Complete solutions to the in-chapter exercises and Practice Tests, included as PDF files on-line, build student confidence and indicate where additional study is needed. Summaries of important points at the end of each chapter provide references for students. Key equations are highlighted in the book to draw attention to important results.

### About the Author(s) – Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications

** Allan R. Hambley** received his B.S. degree from Michigan Technological University, his M.S. degree from Illinois Institute of Technology, and his Ph.D. from Worcester Polytechnic Institute. He has worked in industry for Hazeltine Research Inc., Warwick Electronics, and Harris Government Systems. He is currently Professor of Electrical Engineering at Michigan Tech.

The Michigan Tech chapter of Eta Kappa Nu named him the Outstanding Electrical Engineering Teacher of the Year in 1995. He has won the National Technological University Outstanding Instructor Award six times for his courses in communication systems. The American Society for Engineering Education presented him with the 1998 Meriam Wiley Distinguished Author Award for the first edition of his book, *Electronics*. His hobbies include fishing, boating in remote areas of Lake Superior, and gardening.